Relational Database Model

File Management System

In practice, an Organization is managing their Business Information with Manual File System. The Manual File System is form with Collection of File Folders and Paper Documents. Every File Folder Label Name is indicating the File Content Type Information. Each File Information has Relationship with other File Information. Management Information Report is generating from Manual File Information. Even today, this concept is working fine.

In the traditional Application Development Environment (1950 - 1970), every Business Information categorized and stored in the Computer System like Data File and maintain through Application Code File. Computer Manufacturer Company provided Computer Operating System to track the Application Code and Data File based on the File Location and File Name. This is called File Management System. File Management System does not have Intelligence Process that created Data Security, Data Maintain Cost, Data Redundancy, Data Inconsistency and Data Anomaly Problem to maintain Information in the Data File.

Data Security

Data File can manage from Customize Application or Generic Word Processing Application. Management Information Report was generating from Data File Information through Customize Application or Word Processing Application. Operating System provided Read and Hidden File Attribute to protect Data File from Application End User. In the File Management System, Data File Protection was Low.

Data Maintain Cost

The Structure of Data File was maintained through Customize Application Code. The Structure designed with Field Name, Field Type, Field Size and Delimiter Character of the Record. An instance, in the COBOL Program Language, File Description (FD) Section provides to maintain the Structure of the Data File. This idea was complex to maintain Structure of Data File to Add Field or Delete Field or Update Field Type or Field Size. An instance, in the Sales Management System, when introduce a new Tax Field, the developer updated Sales Event Related Application Code and then maintain the Legacy Data File into New Data File.

According to the Business Operational workflow, time to time, the programmer needs to update the Application Code and update Data File Design with new requirement. Due to time constraint, the programmer focused to the current problem and may be they failed to focus the entire system data flow. Instead to concentrate to develop a New Application Code, most of the developer was concentrate to Maintain Exiting Application Code to manage Data File. In the File Management System, the Application Maintain Cost was HIGH.

Data Integrity Problem

In the traditional Application Development, an Organization Business Process de-composed into different Departments and developed different Application for each Department. Data File was designed through each Department Manual File Content or Paper Form Documents. An instance, Sales Management Application was designed with Customer, Product, Supplier, Employee and Invoice Transaction Data Files. An Account Management Application was designed with Customer, Product, Supplier, Employee, Account Head and Account Transaction Data Files. One Application Data File was not shared with other Application Data File and Data Redundancy, Data Inconsistency and Data Anomalies problem was created.

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